The following 20 question quiz asks multiple choice questions based on the information covered at the links of the following webpage:

An answer key is provided at the bottom of this webpage.

1. Snow requires a temperature sounding that is cold and deep enough to support snow, saturated air and:
a. Instability release
b. A lifting mechanism
c. Wind shear
d. Low level cold air advection

2. All of the following are important for heavy lake effect snow except:
a. Deep layer of cold polar air flowing over much warmer lake
b. A lake fetch of 30 kilometers or more
c. An inversion located above the 700 millibar level
d. A minimal amount of directional wind shear with height

3. Snow will not occur if:
a. The surface temperature is above freezing
b. The temperature at 700 millibars of 0 C
c. The temperature at 500 millibars of colder than -20 C
d. The temperature 5,000 feet aloft of 5 C

4. This is the only winter precipitation type that can not occur if the surface air and soil temperature are above freezing:
a. Snow
b. Sleet
c. Freezing rain
d. Graupel

5. Heavy snow from a mid-latitude cyclone will most likely develop in an environment with a 1000 to 500 millibar thickness of:
a. 5,460
b. 5,400
c. 5,340
d. 5,280

6. The most powerful nowcasting tool for winter precipitation is:
a. Radar
b. Skew-T
c. Satellite
d. Model data

7. The temperature is 40 F with a dewpoint of 5 F. Using the 1/3 - 5 rule, what temperature would be expected after complete evaporational cooling of the stagnant air?
a. 35 F
b. 30 F
c. 25 F
d. 20 F

8. If the thickness is 540 dm at a sea level location and precipitation is expected, climatologically it would be expected that the chance the precipitation type would be snow rather than another precipitation type is:
a. Greater than 50%
b. 50%
c. Less than 50%

9. The depth of the troposphere that has above freezing temperatures aloft with below freezing temperatures both above and below this layer is known as the:
a. Elevated Mixed Layer
b. Saturated Layer
c. Capping Layer
d. Elevated Warm Layer

10. The threshold temperature difference between the lake water temperature and the 850 mb temperature in order for heavy lake effect snow to be possible in the Great Lakes region is:
a. 8 C
b. 13 C
c. 18 C
d. 23 C

11. If rain changes to snow, all are possible reasons except:
a. Increased dynamic uplift
b. Cold Air Advection in the lower troposphere
c. Evaporational cooling in the lower troposphere
d. Warm Air Advection in the lower troposphere

12. All of the following will tend to warm a polar air mass except:
a. Radiation from earth's surface on a clear night
b. Movement of polar air over warm soils
c. Warm Air Advection over the top of the polar air mass in the lower troposphere
d. Raindrops that are initially warmer than the polar air falling through it
e. Daytime solar radiation
f. Movement toward a lower elevation

13. These are falling partially melted snowflakes that refreeze before striking the earth's surface as ice particles:
a. Snow
b. Freezing rain
c. Sleet (ice pellets)
d. Hail

14. Air that is 32 F and saturated will have more moisture in the air than air that is 22 F and saturated.
a. True
b. False

15. The lifting of air over a warm front boundary at a fixed point can cause:
a. Warming due to warm air advection
b. Warming due to condensation
c. Cooling due to adiabatic uplift
d. Cooling due to evaporation and melting
e. Any or all of the above

16. There is no need to worry about forecasting winter precipitation if:
a. Only light precipitation is expected
b. The temperature profile can only support rain
c. The surface temperature is below freezing
d. All of the above

17. A dendritic snowflake has _____(1)_____ sides. Dendrites form at a temperature of _____(2)______.
a. (1) 4, (2) -14 C
b. (1) 6, (2) -14 C
c. (1) 4, (2) -4 C
d. (1) 6, (2) -4 C

18. If freezing rain changes over the sleet, which of the following would you most logically conclude?
a. WAA is occurring in the PBL
b. Condensational warming is occurring at 850 mb
c. The thickness of freezing temperature from the surface has increased
d. The entire temperature profile of the troposphere is below freezing
e. The precipitation should change over to all rain soon

19. The form of winter precipitation that is most dangerous to power lines is:
a. Freezing rain
b. Freezing drizzle
c. Sleet
d. Snow

20. Whether a snowflakes will melt or not before reaching the earth's surface depends upon:
a. The size of the snowflake
b. The warmth of the air surrounding the snowflake
c. The depth of above freezing air the snowflake has to fall through
d. All of the above


1. B
2. B
3. D
4. C
5. C
6. A
7. B
8. B
9. D
10. B
11. D
12. A
13. C
14. A
15. E
16. B
17. B
18. C
19. A
20. D